Council on Energy, Environment and Water Integrated | International | Independent

Energy-Emissions: Trends and Policy Landscape for India

P.R. Shukla, Amit Garg, Hem H. Dholakia
November 2015 | Industrial Sustainability & Competitiveness

Suggested Citation: Shukla, P. R., Amit Garg, and Hem H. Dholakia. 2015. Energy-emissions trends and policy landscape for India. Vol. 1. Allied Publishers


This book details inventory of energy and emissions at national and sector levels. It maps firm and locale level energy use and emissions and their impacts such as on the urban air pollution. Further, it examines the future energy and emissions trends by analysing scenarios using an integrated assessment modelling framework that aligns India’s national development goals with global climate change actions. It also provides insights into the mode and means of navigating the energy and emissions policy landscape for India.

Key Findings

  • India’s emission intensity is primarily driven by two factors: construction of new coal-based power plants and the slow rate of improvement in the energy efficiency of the supply and demand sides.
  • The global 2°C temperature stabilisation target shall require fundamental transformation of India’s energy system, both on demand and supply sides.
  • It is necessary to follow a long-term development-centric perspective even while delineating near-term energy and emissions policies, programs and targets.
  • India will meet the GHG emissions’ intensity target comfortably and exceed it by attaining a decline of 28 per cent between the years 2005 and 2020.
  • In 2010, China’s CO2 emissions intensity of GDP was 30 per cent higher than that of India and is projected to remain higher till 2050 in a Business-as-usual (BAU) scenario.
  • Under a BAU scenario, India’s emissions would keep rising through the 21st century since abundant low-cost fossil energy resources exist globally. Later, the growth rate of GHG emissions would decline in the second half of the 21st century.
  • India’s emissions are much lower than compared to China and for India, the task is to ascertain the roadmap of actions that shall not compromise the national sustainable development goals and decouple the GHG emissions from the economic growth.
India will meet the GHG emissions’ intensity target and exceed it by attaining a decline of 28 per cent between the years 2005 and 2020.

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