Suggested citation: Experience I. Nduagu, Deepak Yadav, Nishant Bhardwaj, Sabarish Elango,Tirtha Biswas, Rangan Banerjee, Srinivasan Rajagopalan. 2022. Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Natural Gas and Coal-Based Directly Reduced Iron (DRI) Production: A Case Study for India. Journal of Cleaner Production. 131196. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2022.131196
This study develops a comprehensive cradle-to-gate (raw material to iron product) life cycle assessment of three distinct technological pathways for producing directly-reduced iron (DRI) – direct coal reduction in a rotary kiln (rotary kiln DRI) process, coal gasifier and shaft furnace (coal gasifier DRI) process, and reformed natural gas (NG) and shaft furnace (NG reformer DRI) process. The study finds that the NG reformer DRI process produces significantly lower overall emissions. The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the coal gasifier and the rotary kiln DRI processes are noted to be similar.